Does long-term use of proton pump inhibitors cause vitamin B12 deficiency?

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EVIDENCE-BASED ANSWERVitamin B12 deficiency is associated with either longterm proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or histamine-2 receptor blocker (H2 blocker) use, but a causal relationship is not established (SOR: B, meta-analysis of high-quality casecontrol studies).

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