Does bedside ultrasound of the inferior vena cava (IVC) accurately predict a patient's volume status?

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A 72-year-old man with type 2 diabetes, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and hypertension was admitted to the ICU with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia. Overnight he had acute decompensation with acute respiratory distress syndrome and was intubated, became hypotensive, and was started on vasopressors. The medical team believes the patient is septic, but he has already had aggressive resuscitation with fluids. Can bedside ultrasound of the IVC accurately predict volume status?

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