Exposure to war trauma has been independently associated with posttraumatic stress (PTSD) and other emotional disorders in children and adults. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between ongoing war traumatic experiences, PTSD and anxiety symptoms in children, accounting for their parents' equivalent mental health responses.Methods
The study was conducted in the Gaza Strip, in areas under ongoing shelling and other acts of military violence. The sample included 100 families, with 200 parents and 197 children aged 9-18 years. Parents and children completed measures of experience of traumatic events (Gaza Traumatic Checklist), PTSD (Children's Revised Impact of Events Scale, PTSD Checklist for parents), and anxiety (Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale for parents).Results
Both children and parents reported a high number of experienced traumatic events, and high rates of PTSD and anxiety scores above previously established cut-offs. Among children, trauma exposure was significantly associated with total and subscales PTSD scores, and with anxiety scores. In contrast, trauma exposure was significantly associated with PTSD intrusion symptoms in parents. Both war trauma and parents' emotional responses were significantly associated with children's PTSD and anxiety symptoms.Conclusions
Exposure to war trauma impacts on both parents' and children's mental health, whose emotional responses are inter-related. Both universal and targeted interventions should preferably involve families. These could be provided by non-governmental organizations in the first instance.