Thoracic geometry changes htduring equine locomotion

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Abstract

Classic descriptions of rib motion during ventilation include three-dimensional movements that are tied to the locomotor pattern. It is still not clear how chest wall and diaphragmatic movements contribute to ventilation. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate how gait affects local thoracic geometry in horses. Hemispherical markers were placed on the skin over the ribs and spine to calculate thoracic hemi-diameter. Ventilatory airflows were recorded using an ultrasonic flowmeter system. Airflow and kinematic data were collected synchronously at walk (1.8 m s−1), trot (4 m s−1), canter and gallop (6, 8 and 10 m s−1) on the treadmill. At walk and trot, the changes in right and left hemi-diameter were approximately symmetric. At walk, mean hemi-diameter changes were 40 mm (rib 10) and 47 mm (rib 16). At trot, they were 33 mm (rib 10) and 34 mm (rib 16). Across the three canter and gallop speeds, leading (right) side hemi-diameter change increased from 25 to 30 to 35 mm (rib 10) and from 23 to 37 to 46 mm (rib 16). The trailing (left) side hemi-diameter increased from 50 to 67 to 70 mm (rib 10) and from 36 to 48 to 54 mm (rib 16) (P <0.01). At canter and gallop, the non-lead side of the thorax is subjected to larger amplitude changes in hemi-diameter than the lead side, which tends to be more compressed overall and demonstrates smaller amplitudes of change in diameter.

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