Live/Real Time Three-Dimensional Transthoracic Echocardiographic Assessment of the Involvement of Cardiac Valves and Chambers in Carcinoid Disease

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Abstract

We present an adult with metastatic carcinoid disease affecting the heart, in whom live/real time three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3DTTE) provided incremental value over two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE). Initial 2DTTE was able to demonstrate severe pulmonic and tricuspid regurgitation, but was unable to visualize the posterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve or the right (right anterior) leaflet of the pulmonic valve. Further analysis with 3DTTE demonstrated thickening, restricted mobility, and noncoaptation of all three leaflets of both the tricuspid and the pulmonary valves. En face viewing of tricuspid and pulmonary regurgitation vena contractas permitted more reliable quantification of regurgitation severity. In addition, localized, linear, echogenic areas consistent with carcinoid deposits were noted along the inner walls of the right atrium, atrial septum, and inferior vena cava. To the best of our knowledge, endocardial carcinoid deposits have never been reported by 2D or 3D echocardiography. En face viewing of these deposits by 3DTTE enabled measurement of their dimensions and areas. Subcostal examination also identified large circumscribed hepatic lesions consistent with metastatic disease. Neither the carcinoid deposits nor the metastatic lesions were detected by 2DTTE. This case demonstrates the usefulness of 3DTTE as a supplement to 2DTTE in more comprehensively assessing carcinoid involvement of the heart. (Echocardiography 2012;29:E72-E77)

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