Noninvasive Assessment of Left Atrial Phasic Function in Patients with Hypertension and Diabetes Using Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking and Volumetric Parameters

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To evaluate the left atrial phasic function of hypertensive patients with or without coexisting diabetes using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE)-based strain and strain rate imaging and volumetric parameters.


The study included an isolated hypertension group (HT group) comprising 99 patients, a hypertension and diabetes group (HT + DM group) comprising 65 patients, and 26 age-matched healthy controls. The 2DSTE-based strain and strain rate images were studied, and the following parameters were measured: peak left atrial longitudinal strain (LAS-S), early diastolic (LAS-E) and late diastolic (LAS-A) atrial longitudinal strains, and systolic (LASR-S), early diastolic (LASR-E) and late diastolic (LASR-A) strain rates.


The LAS-S and LASR-S were lower in the HT group and the HT + DM group compared with the control group (P < 0.001). The LAS-E and LASR-E were lower in the HT group (14.9 ± 5.5% and −1.1 ± 0.4/sec, respectively) than in the control group (22.1 ± 8.3% and −1.7 ± 0.6/sec, respectively) (P < 0.001), and they were further depressed in the HT + DM group (12.3 ± 6.3% and −1.0 ± 0.4/sec, respectively) (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in LAS-A or LASR-A among the 3 groups (P > 0.05). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that HT and DM were independently related to LAS-E and LASR-E.


Hypertension can lead to abnormal left atrial reservoir and conduit functions, and coexisting diabetes can further impair conduit function. 2DSTE-derived strain and strain rate imaging are sensitive methods for evaluating left atrial phasic function.

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