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Novel molecular based methods are being developed to study changes in gene expression in wildlife exposed to anthropogenic chemicals. Gene arrays, in particular, are useful tools that can be used to simultaneously monitor hundreds to thousands of genes within a single experiment, giving an investigator the ability to determine how exposure affects multiple metabolic pathways. These methods are thought to be both sensitive and able to reveal biochemical mechanisms of action. A largemouth bass (LMB) array containing 132 genes has been designed to study the impact of gene expression in male fish exposed to 17-β estradiol or to the compounds 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) or 1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p′-DDE). The results of these experiments demonstrate distinct gene expression patterns in LMB exposed to these compounds.