Symptoms of depression frequently co-occur with eating disorders and have been associated with negative outcomes. Self-report measures such as the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) are commonly used to assess for the presence of depressive symptoms in eating disorders, but the instrument's factor structure in this population has not been examined. The purposes of this study were to explore the factor structure of the BDI-II in a sample of individuals (N = 437) with anorexia nervosa undergoing inpatient treatment and to examine changes in depressive symptoms on each of the identified factors following a course of treatment for anorexia nervosa in order to provide evidence supporting the construct validity of the measure. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that a three-factor model reflected the best fit for the data. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to validate this model against competing models and the three-factor model exhibited strong model fit characteristics. BDI-II scores were significantly reduced on all three factors following inpatient treatment, which supported the construct validity of the scale. The BDI-II appears to be reliable in this population, and the factor structure identified through this analysis may offer predictive utility for identifying individuals who may have more difficulty achieving weight restoration in the context of inpatient treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.