Temperature effects on reproduction and adult lifespan of the smaller fruit tortrix,Grapholita lobarzewskii

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The effects of temperature on adult lifespan, reproduction, and oviposition behaviour of Grapholita lobarzewskii Nowicki (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were studied under controlled and semi-field conditions to improve the basis for phenological forecasting. The average female lifespan ranged from 18.9 days at 25.1 °C to 65.3 days at 11.0 °C. For adult female ageing, a lower thermal threshold (THR) of 8.6 °C and a thermal constant (K) of 298 degree days (dd) were established. At constant temperatures, fecundity ranged from 0.3 eggs per female at 11.0 °C to 107 eggs per female at 21.2 °C. The highest fecundity of 127 eggs per female was observed at fluctuating temperatures. Oviposition lasted on average 350 dd, but 50% of the eggs were laid within the first 100 dd after adult emergence. Grapholita lobarzewskii had a distinct circadian rhythm for oviposition. Females began to lay eggs at ca. 16:00 hours and ceased at 24:00 hours with the peak occurring generally at 19:00 hours. Females reacted very sensitively to sudden temperature changes. A temperature drop of 3.1 °C could cause a 1-day interruption of oviposition.

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