Use of platelet-rich plasma in the cystic lesions of the jaws: a comparative study

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Abstract

Background

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous source of platelets that is obtained by sequestering and concentrating platelets by gradient density centrifugation. The healing characteristics and hemostatic properties of PRP enable it to support tissues and structures in desired configurations.

Purpose

To evaluate the efficacy of PRP in regeneration of bone when mixed with tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in cystic defects of the oral and maxillofacial region and correlate this with that of a TCP graft in the same kinds of defects without PRP.

Materials and methods

A comparative nonrandomized study including 30 patients with bony defects of 2–7.4 cm in the maxillofacial region was carried out in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Patients were divided into two groups: group A received PRP with β-TCP and group B received only β-TCP. Postoperatively, the patients were monitored regularly by radiographs to evaluate new bone growth.

Statistical analysis

The Mann–Whitney U-test and odds ratio were used for statistical analysis.

Results

The graft dissolution was faster in the PRP group than in the non-PRP group. In the second month, it was 60 versus 40% of the dense–sparse pattern of bone trabeculae. The proportionate difference in the dense trabecular pattern at the sixth month was (73.3–46.7%=26.6%), which is greater than that observed at the 12th month (86.7–80.0%=6.7%), which is indicative of early consolidation, maturation of the graft material, and early osteogenesis.

Conclusion

Defects filled with PRP and β-TCP showed comparatively earlier and faster bone regeneration.

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