Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio as an early predictor of outcome in critically-ill septic patients


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Abstract

Several cumbersome scoring systems were developed for prognosis and outcome prediction in sepsis. We intended in this study to evaluate the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) as a prognostic predictor in sepsis.We included 40 adult septic patients in a prospective observational study. We excluded patients with preexisting chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus.After clinical evaluation, urine spot samples were collected on admission and 24 h later for ACR1 and ACR2. Admission APACHE IV score and the highest recorded SOFA score of their daily estimation were considered. We also evaluated the need for mechanical ventilation, inotropic and/or vasoactive support, renal replacement therapy (RRT), and in-hospital mortality.In a population with 63 (55–71) year old with 29 (72.5%) males, we found that the ACR2 is correlated with the SOFA score (r = 0.4, P = 0.03). SOFA was higher in patients with increasing ACR [14(4.8–16.8) vs 5(3–8), P = 0.01]. None of the ACR measures was correlated with APACHE IV score. ACR2 was higher in patients who needed mechanical ventilation and inotropic and/or vasoactive support [140(125–207) and 151(127–218) mg/g respectively] compared to [65(47–174) and 74(54–162) mg/g], P = 0.01 and 0.009. None of the measured parameters was related to the need of RRT. ACR1, ACR2, APACHE IV and increasing ACR were predictors of mortality. The AUC for mortality prediction was largest for APACHE IV (0.90) then ACR2 (0.88). ACR2 of 110.5 mg/g was 100% sensitive and 86% specific to predict mortality.We concluded that the urinary ACR may be used as a simple test for prognosis and mortality prediction in sepsis.

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