Importance of combined left atrial size and estimated pulmonary pressure for clinical outcome in patients presenting with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

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Abstract

Aims

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a complex syndrome with various phenotypes and outcomes. The prognostic relevance of echocardiography and the E/e′ ratio has previously been reported. We sought to study in addition, the value of estimated pulmonary pressure and left atrial size for diagnosing and determining a prognosis for HFpEF-patients in a prospective multi-centric cohort.

Methods and results

Patients with an acute-HF event accompanied with NT-proBNP >300 pg/mL (BNP >100 pg/mL) and LVEF >45% were included (n = 237) and clinically reassessed using echo-Doppler after 4–8 weeks of HF treatment as part of the prospective KaRen HFpEF study. A core-centre performed the echocardiographic analyses. A combined primary endpoint of either HF hospitalizations and mortality over a span of 18-month, or simply mortality (secondary endpoint) were used. The mean LVEF was 62 ± 7%, E/e’:12.9 ± 6.0, left atrial volume index (LAVI): 48.1 ± 15.9 ml/m2, TR: 2.9 ± 0.9 m/s. Patients with both LAVI > 40 ml/m2 and TR > 3.1 m/s had a significantly greater risk of death or heart failure related hospitalization than others (P = 0.014 after adjustment).

Conclusion

The combination of enlarged LA and elevated estimated pulmonary pressure has a strong prognostic impact in patients suffering from HFpEF. Our results indicate that such patients constitute a risk group in HFpEF which requires dedicated medical attention.

ClinicalTrials.gov

NCT00774709

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