Cardiac risk reduction in non-cardiac surgery: the role of anaesthesia and monitoring techniques

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Cardiac complications are the major cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. This is related to the frequent presence of underlying coronary artery disease. In the last few decades, attention has focused on preoperative cardiac risk assessment that may help to identify patients at increased cardiac risk for whom cardioprotective medication and, when indicated, coronary revascularization may improve perioperative outcome. On the other hand, less attention was given to the role of anaesthesia and monitoring techniques in the cardiac risk management of high-risk patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. The aim of this review was to summarize the current evidence from published studies on the effect of the type of anaesthesia and monitoring techniques on perioperative cardiac outcome in non-cardiac surgery.

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