Thromboembolic events in the pregnant and postpartum patient remain rare but potentially fatal complications. The aim of this section was to analyse the few prospective studies addressing the issue of thromboprophylaxis following a surgical procedure during and immediately after pregnancy, as well as national guidelines, and to propose European guidelines on this specific condition. Thromboprophylaxis is broadly recommended due to the combined risks of surgery and pregnancy or the postpartum period, regardless of the mode of delivery. We recommend prophylactic thromboprophylaxis following surgery during pregnancy or the postpartum period when they imply, as a consequence, bed rest, until full mobility is recovered (Grade 1C). Similarly, thromboprophylaxis should be used in cases of perioperative infection during pregnancy or the postpartum period. Concerning thromboprophylaxis following a caesarean section, it seems avoidable only in elective procedures in low-risk patients, after a normal pregnancy, and with an early rehabilitation protocol. The duration of thromboprophylaxis following caesarean section should be at least 6 weeks for high-risk patients, and at least 7 days for the other patients requiring anticoagulation (Grade 1C).