Chemopreventive effect of different ratios of fish oil and corn oil on prognostic markers, DNA damage and cell cycle in colon carcinogenesis

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Fish oil (FO) rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a protective role in autoimmune disorders, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer, whereas corn oil (CO) rich in n-6 PUFAs has a proinflammatory and procarcinogenic effect. A balanced n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in diet rather than absolute intake of either may be responsible for decreasing cancer incidence. This study was designed to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of different ratios of FO and CO on prognostic markers, DNA damage, and cell cycle distribution in colon carcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, N,N′-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) treated, FO+CO(1 : 1)+DMH, and FO+CO(2.5 : 1)+DMH. All the groups, except control, received a weekly injection of DMH for 4 weeks. The animals were given modified AIN-76A diets and killed either 48 h later (initiation phase) or kept for 16 weeks (postinitiation phase). The animals treated with DMH in both the phases showed an increase in multiple plaque lesions, total sialic acid, lipid associated sialic acid, DNA damage and cell proliferation. However, levels of p53 in the postinitiation and cyclin D1 in both the phases were significantly elevated. FO+CO(2.5 : 1)+DMH treatment in both the phases led to a decrease in multiple plaque lesions, DNA damage, total sialic acid, lipid associated sialic acid as compared with the DMH treated group. There was a G1 arrest with a decrease in p53 and cyclin D1 levels in FO+CO(2.5 : 1) in both the phases whereas treatment with FO+CO(1 : 1)+DMH led to same results in the postinitiation phase only. This study suggests that FO+CO(2.5 : 1) is more effective in chemoprevention of experimental colon carcinogenesis.

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