To determine whether health-related lifestyle factors are associated with attendance at a population-based invitational mammography screening program in southern Sweden, data on health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, BMI, diet, self-rated health, and stress) were obtained from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study and linked to the Malmö mammography register (Sweden, 1992–2009). Women (n=11 409) who were free from breast cancer at study entry were included in the cohort, and mammography attendance was followed from cohort entry to 31 December 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for repeated measures within patients. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Nonattendance occurred in 8% of the 69 746 screening opportunities that were observed. Nonattendance was more common among women who were current or former smokers [OR=1.60 (1.45–1.76) and OR=1.15 (1.05–1.28)], had not used alcohol in the past year [OR=1.55 (1.32–1.83)], were less physically active outside of work [OR=1.10 (1.00–1.20)], had high physical activity at work (OR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.00–1.28), were vegetarians or vegans [OR=1.49 (1.11–1.99)], had not used dietary supplements [OR=1.11 (1.01–1.21)], had poor self-rated health [OR=1.24 (1.14–1.36)], and were experiencing greater stress [OR=1.25 (1.14–1.36)]. In this cohort, nonattendance was associated with smoking, alcohol abstinence, physical activity, poor self-rated health, stress, and following a vegetarian/vegan diet. These findings generally support the notion that women with less healthy lifestyles are less likely to engage in mammography screening.