Real-time in-vivo microscopic imaging of the cervix using confocal laser endomicroscopy: preliminary observations and feasibility study

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Abstract

Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) enables in-vivo, real-time, imaging of tissues with a micron-scale resolution through a fiber optic probe. CLE could be a valuable tool for the detection and characterization of suspicious (dysplastic) areas on the uterine cervix in a minimally invasive manner. This study evaluates the technical feasibility and safety of CLE on the cervix. The study also aims to create a preliminary iconography of normal and dysplastic squamous and columnar cervical epithelium. In-vivo CLE was performed on nine patients scheduled for a cervical loop electric excision procedure for high-grade superficial intraepithelial lesions. The CLE images were compared with standard hematoxylin and eosin analysis of loop electric excision procedure specimens. The histopathological diagnosis on the surgical specimen was established as per standard of care. CLE images were then reviewed by pathologists to point out specific histopathological features. pCLE of the exocervix and the transformation zone was performed successfully on seven out of nine patients. Uninterpretable images were obtained in two other cases: one using the AlveoFlex and one using the GastroFlex UHD after the application of acetic acid 2%. A total of 82.5% of the sequences recorded with the GastroFlex were suitable for interpretation. No adverse event or complications occurred. CLE enables proper in-vivo imaging of healthy and dysplastic cervical tissue. Images correlate well with the histopathological features established through traditional histology. Future blinded prospective analysis will determine the reliability of the real-time diagnosis and its potential use in the assessment and treatment of cervical lesions.

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