Human papillomavirus infection by anatomical site among Greek men and women: a systematic review

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Abstract

We systematically reviewed the literature on anal, penile, cervical, and oropharyngeal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Greece to provide a comprehensive overview of HPV prevalence and to explore the reporting of HPV in Greek men and women. A total of five databases, including PubMed and Scopus, were searched up until 1 January 2015 for studies looking at HPV prevalence, incidence, or risk factors by anatomical site. We identified 50 eligible studies for inclusion. The majority of them were cervical studies (n=26) followed by head and neck studies (n=13) with only two studies exclusively focusing on anal sites and two on penile sites. The remaining studies examined prevalence from multiple sites. Most studies looked at small, high-risk populations, and HPV prevalence ranged from 2.5–43.4% for cervical studies; 0–91% for head and neck studies; 54.6–78.4% for anal studies; and 20.3–66.7% for penile studies. Age, smoking, and number of sexual partners were the commonly assessed risk factors. There were significant sex and anatomic site disparities in the reporting of HPV prevalence. Given the relationship between HPV infection and the increasing incidence of anal cancer in men, more research is needed to reveal the prevalence of HPV at these sites in Greek men, especially given the reports of the declining health of the Greek population.

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