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Studies on recent trends in patterns of care for breast cancer patients are scarce. This study aims to examine the patterns and trends in the treatment of women with nonmetastatic breast cancer according to major recommended treatment options. A population-based study was carried out in Navarra, Spain, including all women with a primary invasive nonmetastasized breast cancer, diagnosed in 2005 and in 2013–2014. We compared patients’ characteristics and treatment patterns between periods. Factors associated with receipt of recommended treatment were examined by multivariate logistic regression. Of the 719 patients included, 90% received guideline-adherent locoregional treatment. Over the two periods, there was an increasing use of sentinel lymph node biopsy as opposed to axillary lymph node dissection as the first axillary procedure. Among women with oestrogen receptor-positive tumours, 96% received endocrine therapy. The proportion of high-risk patients who were treated with chemotherapy increased between the two periods from 65 to 74% (P=0.079) and, among patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive tumours, the receipt of targeted treatment increased from 37 to 72% (P<0.001). The main factors associated independently with a lower probability of receiving recommended treatment were age 70 years or older for all treatment modalities and comorbidity for locoregional treatment and chemotherapy. The proportion of women with breast cancer who received treatment according to recent European guidelines in Navarra has increased from 2005 to 2013–2014, resulting in a high level of adherence to standard care. Most failures in adherence to these standards are related to older age or comorbidities.