The aim of this study was to investigate the role of socioeconomic and healthcare use characteristics in the participation in breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening in the French West Indies. We used data from a national health survey conducted in 2014 in Martinique (n=2026) and Guadeloupe (n=2028). Logistic regressions adjusted for various sociodemographic and morbidity variables were performed. The following determinants were investigated: having hot water at home, having received income support for low-income individuals during the last year, educational level, occupational class, complementary health insurance, healthcare renouncement and visit to the general practitioner (GP) during the last year. Multiple imputations were performed to account for missing values. We observed the following cancer screening rates: 78.1% for cervical cancer, 81.5% for breast cancer and 59.5% (women) and 50.8% (men) for colorectal cancer. Higher cervical cancer screening participation was reported among women with qualified occupation and having visited the GP during the last year and lower participation among women who never worked. Higher screening participation was reported among participants having hot water at home and having visited the GP during the last year for breast and colorectal (men and women) cancer. Unexpectedly, a lower colorectal cancer screening participation was found among women with qualified occupation. We observed social inequalities in participation in cancer screening in the French West Indies, which stresses the need to continue efforts to increase screening rates in this population.