The diagnostic value of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-10 levels in differentiating sepsis from severe sepsis and the prognostic value of these levels in predicting outcome were evaluated and compared in patients with community-acquired sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock in the first 72 h of admission to the hospital. Thirty-nine patients were included in the study. The severe sepsis and septic shock cases were combined in a single “severe sepsis” group, and all comparisons were made between the sepsis (n=21 patients) and the severe sepsis (n=18 patients) groups. Procalcitonin levels in the severe sepsis group were found to be significantly higher at all times of measurements within the first 72 h and were significantly higher at the 72nd hour in patients who died. Procalcitonin levels that remain elevated at the 72nd hour indicated a poor prognosis. C-reactive protein levels were not significantly different between the groups, nor were they indicative of prognosis. No significant differences in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha were found between the sepsis and severe sepsis groups; however, levels were higher at the early stages (at admission and the 24th hour) in patients who died. Interleukin-10 levels were also higher in the severe sepsis group and significantly higher at all times of measurement in patients who died. When the diagnostic and prognostic values at admission were evaluated, procalcitonin and interleukin-10 levels were useful in discriminating between sepsis and severe sepsis, whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 levels were useful in predicting which cases were likely to have a fatal outcome.