High rate of decreasing daptomycin susceptibility during the treatment of persistentStaphylococcus aureusbacteremia

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Daptomycin is bactericidal against Staphylococcus aureus, with susceptibility defined as a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤1 μg/ml. Higher MIC developed in a few cases during therapy. The frequency of MIC rise in persistent bacteremia is unknown. We evaluated all patients with S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) treated with daptomycin (≥2 days) from 1 April 2004 to 30 October 2006. All patients with post-daptomycin-exposure saved isolates were studied. Daptomycin susceptibility was determined (in duplicate) on all pre- and post-daptomycin-exposure isolates by the broth (Mueller-Hinton) microdilution method. Among 74 treatment courses in 67 patients, 18 were for SAB. Ten had persistent bacteremia (median = 11 days; range = 1-21) and post-daptomycin-exposure saved isolates. The patient age was 29-84 years (median = 57.5 years). Intravascular catheter was the most common source (50%). Most patients (90%) failed therapy prior to starting daptomycin. The initial daptomycin dose was 4 mg/kg in four (40%) cases. The pre-exposure MIC was 0.125-0.5 μg/ml. The post-exposure MIC increased in four cases and was elevated in two cases (60%), to 2 μg/ml in five and 4 μg/ml in one. MIC rise was noted within 5-15 days of exposure and persisted up to 247 days after stopping daptomycin. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) band pattern of isolates with increased MIC revealed 1-3-band differences, implying genetic relatedness. All patients with non-susceptible isolates relapsed or failed therapy. These findings illustrate that daptomycin susceptibility often decreases during the treatment of persistent SAB. Therefore, susceptibility should be closely monitored during therapy.

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