Intakes of retinol and carotenoids and its determining factors in the Red River Delta population of northern Vietnam

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To describe the household intakes of retinol and carotenoids and social economic factors determining their intakes.


Data on a total of 1001 households (771 in rural areas and 230 in urban areas) were used in the analyses. Interviewed person was household food preparer.


Mean (s.d.) intake of carotenoids was 4178 (3154) μg/capita/day in rural and 4208 (3408) μg/capita/day in urban areas and intake of retinol was 101 (275) μg/capita/day in rural and 201 (470) μg/capita/day in urban areas. Multivariate analyses show that the subjects in households with four or more members consume about 700 μg carotenoids less compared to households with less than three members. Households with a higher expenditure (fourth quartile) consumed about 100 μg retinol/day more than those with a lower expenditure (first quartile).


Carotenoids from plant food sources is the main source of vitamin A intake of the population and its main determinants are household expenditure and size of household. Food fortification and dietary diversification with special emphasis on promotion of consumption of animal foods should be key strategies for overcoming vitamin A deficiency in Vietnam.

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