The relationship between nut consumption and lipid profile among the Iranian adult population; Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

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Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:

The study was carried out to assess the relationship between nut consumption and lipid profile among Iranian adults.

SUBJECT/METHODS:

The study was based on data from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program across three counties in central Iran in 2007. A cross-sectional survey of 9660 randomly selected adults aged ≥19 years were chosen based on sex, age and settlement distributions in each community. Nutritional behaviors were assessed by validated qualitative 48-item food frequency questionnaires, which covered regular intakes of four types of nuts: walnuts, almonds, pistachios and hazelnuts. Analysis of covariance and logistic regression tests were utilized to determine odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval of hyperlipidemia according to nut consumption patterns in unadjusted and three-adjusted models.

RESULTS:

The results showed a significant link between high nut consumption and lower total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and apo B/apo A ratio (P<0.05) in female subjects and lower TG, LDL-C and apoB/apoA ratio in male subjects (P<0.05). The frequency of nut consumption was inversely associated with dyslipidemia, especially for those who had consumed nuts ≥4 times weekly (0.67 (0.57-0.79)). After adjusting for sex, age and other potential confounders, ORs increased enormously. Except for low apo A and high LDL-C, more frequent nut consumption (4≤ times per week) had a significant inverse effect on other dyslipidemia risk factors in all four models.

CONCLUSIONS:

We concluded that frequent consumption of nuts, particularly ≥4 times a week, may result in lower dyslipidemia occurrences and may exert cardioprotective effects.

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