The nutrient-rich food (NRF) index assesses nutrient quality of individual food items by ranking them according to their nutrient composition. The index reflects the nutrient density of the overall diet. We examined the associations between the NRF9.3 index—a score on the basis of nine beneficial nutrients (protein, fiber, vitamins and minerals) and three nutrients to limit (saturated fat, sugar and sodium)—incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and all-cause mortality.SUBJECTS/METHODS:
A total of 4969 persons aged 55 and older from the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands, were studied. First, all foods were scored on the basis of their nutrient composition, resulting in an NRF9.3 score on food item level. Subsequently, they were converted into individual weighted scores on the basis of the amount of calories of each food item consumed by the subjects and the total energy intake. The hazard ratios (HRs) of the NRF9.3 index score were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking history, doctor-prescribed diet, alcohol consumption and education.RESULTS:
Food groups that contributed most to the NRF9.3 index score were vegetables, milk and milk products, fruit, bread and potatoes. A high NRF9.3 index score was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR Q4 versus Q1: 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.96)). Associations were stronger in women than in men. The NRF9.3 index score was not associated with incidence of CVD.CONCLUSION:
Elderly with a higher NRF9.3 index score, indicating more beneficial components and/or less limiting components, had a lower risk of all-cause mortality. Consuming a nutrient-dense diet may improve survival.