Complex ventricular reconstruction (CVR) is now being employed increasingly thanks to the pioneering work of Dor. However, little is known about the failure mode of CVR. We present experience from three centres with CVR and an analysis of the failure modes.Methods:
Between January 1997 and February 2005, 284 patients underwent CVR in three centres in Australia and USA. All of the procedures were performed as adjuncts to coronary artery surgery and/or valvular surgery. Patients were followed-up clinically and/or echocardiographically. Failure modes were classified as fatal or non-fatal. Non-fatal failure mode (NFM) was defined as either persistent heart failure, recurrence of LV scar, need for ventricular assistance, persistent ventricular arrhythmia, or a combination.Results:
Operative mortality rate (OMR) was 8% (23 deaths). This fatal failure mode was most related to urgency of surgery and cardiogenic shock in 15 patients (5.3% of OMR), stroke in 5 patients (1.8%) or postoperative bi-ventricular failure (1%). Non-fatal failure modes accounted for morbidity in 26 patients (9%). This was predominantly due to persistent septal dyskinesis in 7 patients (2.46%), persistent mitral regurgitation in 5 (1.8%), postoperative ventricular tachycardia in 4 (1.4%), sub-optimal myocardial protection in 4 (1.4%) use of a large, stiff patch in 4 (1.4%). One hundred and ninety-nine of the surviving 261 patients (76%) were in NYHA Class I.Conclusions:
Complex ventricular reconstruction is a robust technique that has lasting benefit. Failure modes have been identified and could be minimized by appropriate patient and procedure selection.