Aortic valve replacement in patients with previous coronary artery bypass grafting: 10-year experience

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES

This study aimed to investigate the early and late outcomes of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) with previous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and patent grafts.

METHODS

Between January 2000 and March 2010, 104 patients (87 males) with previous CABG ± concomitant surgery and patent grafts underwent AVR. The median age of the patients was 75 years (range: 37-90 years; inter-quartile range: 69-79 years) and the mean logistic EuroScore was 25.37 ± 16.8. The median time since the previous operation was 9 years (range 1-25; inter-quartile range: 7-14 years). The left internal mammary artery (LIMA) had been used in 75 patients (72.1%) and remained patent in 72 cases (96.0%).

RESULTS

Thirty-day mortality was 7.7% (n = 8), which is less than the predicted mean logistic EuroScore. Isolated AVR was performed in 66 patients (63.5%). The LIMA was dissected and isolated (clamped or blocked with balloon) in 60 patients. The median hospital stay was 10 days (range: 4-183 days; inter-quartile range: 7-15.25 days). Nineteen patients (18.3%) had pulmonary complications, while 12 (11.5%) had acute kidney injury. Seven patients (6.7%) required permanent pacemaker. Six LIMAs (8.3%) were injured and repaired. Prolonged aortic cross-clamp (AXC) time (P = 0.038) and the presence of a previous LIMA graft (P = 0.045) were identified as independent predictors of 30-day mortality. The actuarial survival at 1 and 5 years was 89.4 ± 0.3 and 81.5 ± 0.5%, respectively. Perioperative intra-aortic balloon pump use (P = 0.036), prolonged AXC time (P = 0.004) and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time (P = 0.022) were associated with worse long-term overall survival on multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

AVR post-CABG with patent grafts can be performed in high-risk patients with excellent short- and long-term outcomes and appears to be superior to published catheter-based interventions. In the absence of randomized trial data, we believe that open AVR remains the treatment of choice for aortic valve disease following prior CABG.

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