Aortic valve preservation and repair in acute Type A aortic dissection

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OBJECTIVES:Repair and preservation of the aortic valve in Type A aortic dissection (AAD) remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of outcomes for aortic valve (AV) repair and preservation in AAD focusing on long-term valve-related events.METHODS:Structured searches were performed in Embase (1980-2013) and PubMed (1966-2013) for studies reporting AV repair or preservation in AAD. Early mortality and linearized rates for late mortality and valve-related events were derived. Outcome data were pooled with an inverse-variance-weighted random-effects model.RESULTS:Of 5325 screened articles, 19 observational studies met the eligibility criteria consisting of 2402 patients with a median follow-up of 4.1 [range: 3.1-12.6 years, total 13 733 patient-years (pt-yr)]. The cohort was principally male (median = 68.1%, range: 39-89) with a median age of 59 (range: 55-68) years and Marfan's syndrome was present in 2.5%. AV resuspension was performed in 95% of the patients and the remainder underwent valve-sparing root replacement (reimplantation = 2.5% and remodelling = 2.5%). Pooled early mortality rate was 18.7% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 12.2-26.2%], and linearized late mortality rate was 4.7%/pt-yr (95% CI: 3.4-6.3). Linearized rate for AV reintervention was 2.1%/pt-yr (95% CI: 1.0-3.6), recurrent aortic insufficiency (>2+) was 0.9%/pt-yr (95% CI: 0.3-2.2) and endocarditis was 0.2%/pt-yr (95% CI: 0.1-0.5). The composite rate of thromboembolism and bleeding was 1.4%/pt-yr (95% CI: 0.7-2.2).CONCLUSIONS:Patients surviving an AAD have a limited long-term survival. Preservation and repair of the aortic valve is associated with a moderate risk of reoperation, but a low risk of thromboembolism, bleeding and endocarditis.

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