Elective use of femoro-femoral cardiopulmonary bypass during transcatheter aortic valve implantation†

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Elective use of normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may reduce the risks associated with the transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedure in selected high-risk TAVI patients.

METHODS

Between April 2008 and August 2013, 1177 consecutive patients underwent TAVI. Elective normothermic femoro-femoral CPB was used in 3.7% of patients (n = 43, 27 males, 16 females; mean age 75 ± 10 [range 38–90] years). The EuroSCORE I was 65 ± 23%, the EuroSCORE II was 39 ± 24% and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality score was 31 ± 24%. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 24 ± 12% (range 5–50%).

RESULTS

The device success rate (Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria) was 98% in this study group. The median duration of CPB was 20 (range 5–297) min. In 20 patients with pulmonary hypertension combined with an enlarged right ventricle (RV), or with poor RV ejection fraction or LVEF (mean LVEF: 18 ± 3% [range 10–20%]), CPB was used to prevent haemodynamic instability during valve deployment and to eliminate the adverse effects of possible ventricular fibrillation. Additionally, it was used to promote cardiac recovery by unloaded failing hearts in 23 patients (53%) with cardiogenic shock. Whereas the 30-day mortality rate in the group of patients in cardiogenic shock was 28.6%, no patient in the other group died. The 1-year survival rate was 36 ± 11 and 86 ± 9.5%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The use of preoperatively planned CPB may increase the safety of the TAVI procedure in patients with severely reduced heart function or in cardiogenic shock.

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