Bicuspid aortic valve increases risk of permanent pacemaker implant following aortic root replacement

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES

We aimed to assess the incidence and possible differences in postoperative conduction delay after aortic root replacement (ARR) in bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients compared with a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV).

METHODS

A total of 380 patients undergoing ARR at our institution between 2005 and 2013 were included in the analysis. Patients were stratified by aortic valve anatomy: BAV, n = 191 vs TAV, n = 189. Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic data were retrospectively analysed at different time points (pre-, postoperatively and at follow-up). Primary outcome of interest was permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation within 30 days, the composite of new PPM or new left fascicular or bundle branch block (PPM or LBBB) was the secondary outcome of interest. Age range was 24–89.5 years and incidence of preoperative moderate to severe aortic stenosis was 9.7%.

RESULTS

BAV patients had higher incidence of PPM implantation within 30 days (5.8 vs 1.6% in TAV, P = 0.053); moreover, the composite of PPM or LBBB was also more frequent in BAV (8.4 vs 2.1%, P = 0.010). BAV was independently associated with PPM insertion (OR 4.08, P = 0.047) and also an independent predictor of PPM or LBBB in multiple regression (OR 4.96, P = 0.006).

CONCLUSIONS

Significantly higher incidence of PPM implantation or LBBB may exist after ARR in bicuspid patients and BAV was confirmed to be an independent predictor for postoperative conduction disturbances by multivariable regression.

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