Perioperative echocardiographic assessment of mitral valve regurgitation: a comprehensive review

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Cardiac ultrasound allows comprehensive analysis of the complex structure of the mitral valve. Transoesophageal echocardiography is the preferred diagnostic and monitoring technique both in the intraoperative phase and in the immediate postoperative phase. Besides two-dimensional imaging, the 3D approach offers clear advantages in visualizing different aspects of pathology and facilitating interpretation of pathophysiological features. This review comprehensively summarizes anatomical and physiological characteristics, the value of 2D imaging in diagnosis and follow-up and the supplementary significance of 3D echocardiography.

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