Durability of bioprostheses for the tricuspid valve in patients with congenital heart disease

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Only little data exist on the durability of bioprostheses in the tricuspid position in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). The aim of the study was to determine the reoperation rate and the valve function after primary implantation.

METHODS

Between 1990 and 2013, 51 patients with CHD underwent tricuspid valve (TV) replacement with a bioprosthesis. The median age at operation was 32 years (range: 8–69). The underlying morphology was Ebstein's anomaly in 62% of the patients. Implanted valves included 38 pericardial and 13 porcine valves. All available echocardiographic examinations (n = 714) and clinical data were retrospectively reviewed. Dysfunction was defined as an at least moderate regurgitation or a mean diastolic gradient ≥9 mmHg. Freedom from death, reoperation and prosthetic valve dysfunction was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method.

RESULTS

The 30-day mortality rate was 9%. The estimated survival rate was 86% at one and 80% at ten years. The freedom from reoperation at 1, 5 and 10 years was 100, 86 and 81%, and that from prosthesis dysfunction detected by echocardiography at 1, 5 and 10 years was 89, 66 and 58%, respectively. The main reason for dysfunction was insufficiency (89%). Valve implantation at an age below 16 years was associated with earlier reoperation and dysfunction (the 5-year freedom rate from reoperation/dysfunction was 70%/30% compared with 89%/78% in the rest of the patients, P = 0.016/0.0009).

CONCLUSIONS

Serial echocardiography shows a high rate of dysfunction of TV bioprosthesis in patients with CHD, which already occurred a few years after implantation. In patients below 16 years of age, most prostheses are dysfunctional within 5 years.

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