Clinical trials in children concerning Helicobacter pylori eradication treatments are scarce. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy using PPI, amoxicillin and clarithromycin in Iranian children. We also evaluated the efficacy of quadruple therapy with PPI, metronidazole, amoxicilin and bismuth citrate in Iranian children.Methods
This was a randomized clinical trial performed in Emam Khomeini Hospital between 2003 and 2004. Patients with confirmed H. pylori infection by histology were divided into two groups in a randomized 1:1 scheme: the triple regimen group (omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin for 10 days) and the quadruple regimen group (omeprazole, amoxicillin, metronidazole and bismuth citrate for 10 days). The eradication was assessed by the 13C-urea breath test 4 weeks after the end of treatment and analyzed by per-protocol and intention-to-treat approaches.Results
One hundred and twenty-two patients (mean age 12.36±3.06 years) were entered into the study. Only 100 patients completed the study (50 patients in each regimen group). The eradication rates by triple therapy were 92% and 75.5% for the ‘per-protocol’ and ‘intention-to-treat’ approaches, respectively. In the quadruple regimen group, the eradication rates were 84% by the per-protocol approach and 68.8% in the intention-to-treat approach. Symptom responses to therapy were reported in all patients with successful eradication (88% of all patients).Conclusion
With regard to recent recommendations, we also suggest PPI, amoxicillin and clarithromycin triple therapy as a first-line eradication treatment, and quadruple therapies as a second-line option, in Iranian children.