Management of bleeding gastric varices: a single session of histoacryl injection may be sufficient

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Abstract

Objective

Gastric variceal bleeding is one of the most feared complications of portal hypertension and hence merits investigation for its optimal therapy. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and long-term outcome(s) of patients treated with a single session of histoacryl sclerotherapy for active gastric variceal bleeding.

Methods

The medical records of patients who presented with active gastric variceal bleeding between 1998 and 2011 in a tertiary care setting were evaluated retrospectively and the eventual outcome(s) (initial hemostasis, rebleeding, and mortality rate) was assessed at least 1 year after the index bleed.

Results

Ninety-seven patients were included. The mean age of the patients was 51.0±12.5 years; 62% were men. Hepatitis C was the most common etiology, found in 63 (65%) patients. The majority of the patients were classified as Child–Pugh grade B and C: 44 (46%) and 29 (31%) patients, respectively. A total of 40 (41%) patients were IGV1, 35 (36%) patients were GOV 2, 20 (21%) patients were GOV 1, and 2 (2%) patients were IGV2. A single session of histoacryl was successful in controlling bleeding in 83 (86%) patients. Seven (7%) patients died during the hospital stay. Rebleeding was observed in 24 (27%) patients during the 1-year follow-up, of whom 12 (50%) were managed successfully with repeated histoacryl injection. The overall mortality rate at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year was 14 (14%), 19 (20%) and 26 (27%) patients, respectively. Child–Pugh classification was a significant prognostic factor of survival (P<0.001).

Conclusion

A single session of histoacryl sclerotherapy is effective in the majority of patients with active gastric variceal bleeding. Rebleeding was observed in one-fourth of patients, half of whom were controlled successfully by repeated histoacryl sclerotherapy.

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