Entecavir as a first-line treatment for hepatitis B virus reactivation following polychemotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and invasive ductal carcinoma: a report of two cases and review of the literature

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Abstract

Objective

Hepatitis B reactivation has been reported in chronic carriers of hepatitis B [hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)] or in patients with prior hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who are HBsAg-negative and have antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) with or without antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs). Lamivudine has been the first and commonly used nucleoside analog to inhibit HBV replication; however, prolonged therapy has been associated with an increased risk for drug-resistant mutations and mortality rates. Entecavir, a deoxyguanosine analog, offers several advantages over lamivudine for the treatment of HBV reactivation following chemotherapy while exhibiting more potent antiviral activity and a lower resistance rate.

Methods

Herein, we report rapid and sustained suppression of polychemotherapy-related HBV reactivation by entecavir administered as a prompt antiviral therapy in the cases of two patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and invasive ductal carcinoma. A review of the literature is discussed.

Results

Entecavir produced a rapid and sustained suppression of polychemotherapy-related HBV reactivation as a prompt antiviral therapy in the cases of two patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and invasive ductal carcinoma.

Conclusion

Allowing a rapid and sustained control of HBV replication, entecavir seems to be a promising drug for first-line prompt treatment of HBV reactivation in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological as well as solid organ malignancies, with safe long-term use enabling maintenance of resolved hepatitis.

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