The aim of the present study was to relate the impairments in calcium mobilization and/or release to the altered membrane dynamics in platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Higher expression of P-selectin (1.4-fold, NS) and the reduction in GPIbα expression (by 27.8±16.7%, p < 0.0002), as well as the increased fractions of platelet microparticles (p < 0.03), reflected more intensified platelet release reaction in diabetic platelets. Overall, diabetic platelets appeared more vulnerable to stimuli facilitating calcium mobilization (by 41%, p < 0.01) and less susceptible to preventive effects of the agents hampering calcium release from intraplatelet storage pools (by 38%, p < 0.01). Both the increased calcium mobilization from intraplatelet storage pools and higher levels of intracellular free calcium in the presence of procaine in diabetic platelets correlated with the reduced platelet membrane lipid fluidity (resp. pR < 0.03 and pR < 0.015). We conclude that the biophysical state of platelet membrane components in diabetes mellitus is the crucial determinant of platelet hyperfunction and probably contributes to the intensified calcium mobilization in diabetic platelets. The depressed preventive effects of procaine on platelet release reaction and calcium mobilization in diabetic platelets may result from the primary dislocations and/or distortions of membrane components caused by the diabetic state.