Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) is a recently developed antibody-targeted chemotherapeutic agent and has been expected to be less toxic than conventional chemotherapy. We retrospectively evaluated the use of GO in 38 patients. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at diagnosis and relapsed AML were treated with 6 and 9 mg/m2 GO. Efficacy and toxicity of GO were analyzed, as well as several prognostic factors. A complete response (CR) was observed in 12 of 38 patients, including five patients with CR plus incomplete regeneration of platelets. In one patient a partial remission was observed. Twenty-five patients showed no change or progressive disease. The overall response (OR) in patients with AML at diagnosis was 47%, with the best response in patients with primary AML (OR 60%, compared with 21% OR in non-primary AML, P = 0.045). The OR in patients with relapsed AML was 22%. Median white blood cell (WBC) before treatment, CD33 expression on leukemic blasts, and kinetics of response were analyzed as prognostic factors. Median WBC was significantly lower in patients who responded to GO, compared with non-responders (2.1 × 109/L vs. 6.8 × 109/L, P = 0.036). CD33 expression and kinetics of response was not correlated to clinical outcome. Median days to reach 500 × 106/L neutrophils and 100 × 109/L platelets were 36 and 39 d, respectively. Infections and bleedings occurred in 45% and 12%, respectively. This report shows that GO has potent clinical activity and that the OR rate was by far the best in untreated primary AML patients.