CD178 (Fas/APO-1 ligand) and CD137 ligand (CD137L) have previously been described in sera of patients with various malignancies and play an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Recently, we demonstrated that low levels of soluble (s) CD137L and high levels of sCD178 correlate significantly with a long progression free survival in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In this study, we correlated sCD137L and sCD178 levels in sera of 42 samples of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 46 samples of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with stages, subtypes, and the clinical course of the diseases and determined cut-off values with maximum probability for significant differentiation between cases with higher/lower probability for progress free survival. In contrast to patients with MDS, surprisingly no correlation between sCD178 levels and different subtypes and stages or with prognosis in AML or NHL were observed. Regarding sCD137L, NHL-patients displayed lower levels compared with AML. Statistically significant higher median levels of sCD137L are present in patients with undifferentiated AML (M1/M2, 1470 pg/mL), poor cytogenetic risk (288 pg/mL) and higher levels of BM-blasts (186 pg/mL) compared with patients with monocytoid AML (M4/M5, 89 pg/mL), intermediate cytogenetic risk (59 pg/mL) and lower levels of BM-blasts (14 pg/mL) respectively. Furthermore, in AML patients sCD137L levels correlate significantly with the probabilities to achieve complete remission (CR), stay in CR or with progress of the disease. Taken together, our data demonstrate that sCD137L can be used as a prognostic factor not only in MDS but also in AML.