Serial measurement of galectin-3 in patients with chronic heart failure: results from the ProBNP Outpatient Tailored Chronic Heart Failure Therapy (PROTECT) study

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Galectin-3 is a prognostic heart failure (HF) biomarker that may mediate cardiac fibrosis. We examined the value of serial galectin-3 measurement for prognosis and response to therapy in chronic HF.

Methods and results

A total of 151 subjects with LV systolic dysfunction (LVSD) were followed through 908 visits over 10 ± 3 months. The amount of time spent with a galectin-3 level ≤ 20.0 ng/mL and changes between baseline and subsequent values were considered across visits, and used to assess risk for adverse cardiovascular (CV) events and associations with LV remodelling. Medication effects on galectin-3 were examined. Median galectin-3 values at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months were higher in patients with CV events (21.7 vs. 18.4 ng/mL, P = 0.03; 21.7 vs. 16.5 ng/mL, P = 0.03; 23.2 vs. 16.0 ng/mL, P = 0.007). Galectin-3 concentration changed in 35.2% of subjects during study procedures; time spent at ≤ 20.0 ng/mL was significantly associated with a lower rate of CV events, independently predicted fewer CV events even adjusted for relevant variables including study allocation, NT-proBNP, and renal function [odds ratio (OR) = 0.90; P = 0.05], and predicted increase in LV ejection fraction (OR = 1.20; P = 0.04). Serial galectin-3 measurement at 6 months added prognostic value beyond the baseline level (P = 0.02). There were no significant effects of medications on galectin-3 levels.


In chronic HF due to LVSD, serial galectin-3 measurement adds incremental prognostic information and predicts LV remodelling. In this study, HF therapies had no clear effects on galectin-3 levels.

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