It is well known that migraine has a strong genetic component, although the type and number of genes involved remains unclear. There is evidence to suggest that serotonin-related genes may be involved in the pathogenesis of migraine. To investigate whether the 5-HT1A receptor gene contributes to the risk of migraine we performed an association study of C-1019G promoter polymorphism of the gene in 102 migraineurs and 93 controls. Subjects were of Han Chinese origin. No significant differences in allele (P = 0.82) or genotype frequencies (P = 0.71) were seen in migraineurs compared with the controls. When migraine with aura, without aura, with family history, without family history were analyzed separately, the frequencies did not vary significantly. Our results suggest that C-1019G in 5-HT1A is not a major genetic risk factor for migraine.