HIV-1 gp120 upregulates matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in a rat model of HIV encephalopathy

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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in diverse processes, such as neuroinflammation, leakiness of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and direct cellular damage in neurodegenerative and other CNS diseases. Tissue destruction by MMPs is regulated by their endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). TIMPs prevent excessive MMP-related degradation of extracellular matrix components. In a rat model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related encephalopathy, we described MMP-2 and MMP-9 upregulation by HIV-1 envelope gp120, probably via gp120-induced reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant gene delivery blunted gp120-induced MMP production. We also studied the effect of gp120 on TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 production. TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels increased 6 h after gp120 injection into rat caudate-putamen (CP). TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 colocalized mainly with neurons (92 and 95%, respectively). By 24 h, expression of these protease inhibitors diverged, as TIMP-1 levels remained high but TIMP-2 subsided. Gene delivery of the antioxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase into the CP before injecting gp120 there reduced levels of gp120-induced TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, recapitulating the effect of antioxidant enzymes on gp120-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9. A significant correlation was observed between MMP/TIMP upregulation and BBB leakiness. Thus, HIV-1 gp120 upregulated TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in the CP. Prior antioxidant enzyme treatment mitigated production of these TIMPs, probably by reducing MMP expression.

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