Synergistically enhanced transdermal permeation and topical analgesia of tetracaine gel containing menthol and ethanol in experimental and clinical studies

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to observe the synergistically enhanced percutaneous penetration and skin analgesia of tetracaine gel containing menthol and ethanol through experimental and clinical studies. Four anesthetic gels containing 4% tetracaine in carbomer vehicle named T-gel (containing no menthol or ethanol), 5%M/T-gel (containing 5% menthol), 70%E/T-gel (containing 70% ethanol, an optimal concentration for antiseptic), and 5%M + 70%E/T-gel (containing both 5% menthol and 70% ethanol), respectively, were fabricated. The in vitro mouse skin permeation was investigated using a Franz diffusion cell. The mouse skin morphology was examined by a scanning electron microscope. The in vivo skin analgesic effect in mice was evaluated using the von Frey tests. To determine the efficacy of tetracaine gels for managing the pain in human volunteers, a paralleled, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial design combined with verbal pain scores (VPS) was performed. The combination of menthol and ethanol (5%M + 70%E/T-gel) conferred significantly higher tetracaine diffusion across full-thickness mouse skin than 5%M/T-gel, 70%E/T-gel, and T-gel. The ultra structure changes of mouse skin stratum corneum treated with 5%M + 70%E/T-gel were more marked compared with those of any other tetracaine gel. von Frey tests in mice showed a synergistically enhanced effect of menthol and ethanol on the analgesia of tetracaine gel. The mean VPS were significantly lower for volunteers treated with 5%M + 70%E/T-gel than those receiving other gels or the EMLA cream. 5%M + 70%E/T-gel possessed the shortest anesthesia onset time, the longest anesthesia duration and the strongest anesthesia efficacy. Seventy percent ethanol in 5%M + 70%E/T-gel not only improved the analgesic efficacy of the tetracaine gel through synergistically enhanced percutaneous permeation with menthol but also served as an antiseptic agent keeping drug application site from infection. 5%M + 70%E/T-gel is a potential topical anesthesia preparation for clinical use.

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