To further evaluate the novel docetaxel-loaded micelle based on the biodegradable thermosensitive copolymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide)-b-poly(DL-lactide) that we had synthesized before, in this paper, we studied its in vitro cytotoxicity in three different tumor cell lines by standard MTT assays using different tumor cell lines, followed by studies of acute toxicity and the tumor distribution studies which were conducted in Kunming mice. Meanwhile, the in vivo antitumor efficacy as well as toxicity of the micelle was evaluated in C57BL/6 mice. According to our findings, the in vitro cytotoxicity of docetaxel-loaded micelles was lower than that of the conventional docetaxel formulation at 37 °C, while hyperthermia greatly enhanced the efficacy of drug-loaded micelles. The acute toxicity study showed reduced toxicity of docetaxel-loaded micelle compared to that of conventional docetaxel formulation. Moreover, docetaxel-loaded micelle enabled a prominent higher docetaxel concentration in tumor than conventional docetaxel formulation. Furthermore, a significantly higher antitumor efficacy was observed in mice treated with docetaxel-loaded micelles accompanied by hyperthermia; docetaxel-loaded micelles also caused less body weight loss of mice. This study demonstrates an increased antitumor efficacy and reduced toxicity of the novel docetaxel-loaded micelle and indicates its prospect of clinical applications.