Characterization of dynamics in complex lyophilized formulations: I. Comparison of relaxation times measured by isothermal calorimetry with data estimated from the width of the glass transition temperature region

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The purposes of this study are to characterize the relaxation dynamics in complex freeze dried formulations and to investigate the quantitative relationship between the structural relaxation time as measured by thermal activity monitor (TAM) and that estimated from the width of the glass transition temperature (ΔTg). The latter method has advantages over TAM because it is simple and quick. As part of this objective, we evaluate the accuracy in estimating relaxation time data at higher temperatures (50 °C and 60 °C) from TAM data at lower temperature (40 °C) and glass transition region width (ΔTg) data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Formulations studied here were hydroxyethyl starch (HES)–disaccharide, HES–polyol, and HES–disaccharide–polyol at various ratios. We also re-examine, using TAM derived relaxation times, the correlation between protein stability (human growth hormone, hGH) and relaxation times explored in a previous report, which employed relaxation time data obtained from ΔTg. Results show that most of the freeze dried formulations exist in single amorphous phase, and structural relaxation times were successfully measured for these systems. We find a reasonably good correlation between TAM measured relaxation times and corresponding data obtained from estimates based on ΔTg, but the agreement is only qualitative. The comparison plot showed that TAM data are directly proportional to the 1/3 power of ΔTg data, after correcting for an offset. Nevertheless, the correlation between hGH stability and relaxation time remained qualitatively the same as found with using ΔTg derived relaxation data, and it was found that the modest extrapolation of TAM data to higher temperatures using ΔTg method and TAM data at 40 °C resulted in quantitative agreement with TAM measurements made at 50 °C and 60 °C, provided the TAM experiment temperature, is well below the Tg of the sample.

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