Oral vaccination, is notoriously weak or nonimmunogenic. One of the major reasons is the inefficient antigen uptake caused by enzymolysis and hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, acid-resistant HP55/PLGA nanoparticle was developed as an oral delivery system to protect H. pylori recombinant antigen CCF against the complex gastrointestinal environment. These ˜200 nm particles controlled the release of antigen in the acidic environment (pH ≤ 5.5). Immunized mice with HP55/PLGA-CCF nanoparticles induced high levels of urease-specific antibodies and memory T cell responses. A month after H. pylori challenge, 43% of mice were completely protected. The protection was highly associated with the Th1/Th17-bias immune response, which had been recognized as an optimal immunity against H. pylori infection. In addition, a mass of T-cells were observed in the lamina propria of mice immunized with CCF, especially in the HP55/PLGA-CCF nanoparticles administered recipients, and contributed to the development of postimmunization gastritis. These results indicate that oral immunization with acid-resistant HP55/PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating vaccine antigens represent a promising strategy for antigen protection, slow-release and targeting, and thus prevented gastrointestinal infection.