Novel strategies in the oral delivery of antidiabetic peptide drugs – Insulin, GLP 1 and its analogs

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As diabetes is a complex disorder being a major cause of mortality and morbidity in epidemic rates, continuous research has been done on new drug types and administration routes. Up to now, a large number of therapeutic peptides have been produced to treat diabetes including insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its analogs. The most common route of administration of these antidiabetic peptides is parenteral. Due to several drawbacks associated with this invasive route, delivery of these antidiabetic peptides by the oral route has been a goal of pharmaceutical technology for many decades. Dosage form development should focus on overcoming the limitations facing oral peptides delivery as degradation by proteolytic enzymes and poor absorption in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This review focuses on currently developed strategies to improve oral bioavailability of these peptide based drugs; evaluating their advantages and limitations in addition to discussing future perspectives on oral peptides delivery. Depending on the previous reports and papers, the area of nanocarriers systems including polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, liposomes and micelles seem to be the most promising strategy that could be applied for successful oral peptides delivery; but still further potential attempts are required to be able to achieve the FDA approved oral antidiabetic peptide delivery system.Graphical abstract

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