|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
The presence of liquid–air interfaces in protein pharmaceuticals is known to negatively impact product stability. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind interface-related protein aggregation are not yet fully understood. Little is known about the physical–chemical behavior of proteins adsorbed to the interface. Therefore, the combinatorial use of appropriate surface-sensitive analytical methods such as Langmuir trough experiments, Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS), Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is highly expedient to uncover structures and events at the liquid–air interface directly. Concentration-dependent adsorption of a human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and characteristic surface-pressure/area isotherms substantiated the amphiphilic nature of the protein molecules as well as the formation of a compressible protein film at the liquid–air interface. Upon compression, the IgG molecules do not readily desorb but form a highly compressible interfacial film.IRRA spectra proved not only the presence of the protein at the interface, but also showed that the secondary structure does not change considerably during adsorption or compression. IRRAS experiments at different angles of incidence indicated that the film thickness and/or packing density increases upon compression. Furthermore, BAM images exposed the presence of a coherent but heterogeneous distribution of the protein at the interface. Topographical differences within the protein film after adsorption, compression and decompression were revealed using underwater AFM.The combinatorial use of physical–chemical, spectroscopic and microscopic methods provided useful insights into the liquid–air interfacial protein behavior and revealed the formation of a continuous but inhomogeneous film of native-like protein molecules whose topographical appearance is affected by compressive forces.