Poly(anhydride) nanoparticles containing cashew nut proteins can induce a strong Th1 and Treg immune response after oral administration

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Cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy. Traditional allergen immunotherapy presents several clinical drawbacks that can be reduced by using nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems, modulating the immune response towards a protective one. In this context, the goal of this work was to assess the potential of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NP) for cashew nut oral immunization. Cashew nut allergens-loaded nanoparticles (CNE-NP) were prepared by solvent displacement method. After nanoparticles characterization, oral immunomodulation ability was evaluated in BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrated that CNE-NP induced a higher Th1/Th2 ratio in comparison with animals immunized with free cashew nut proteins. Indeed, a decrease in splenic Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), and an enhancement of pro-Th1 (IL-12 and IFN-γ) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines was observed. Furthermore, mice orally immunized with CNE-NP presented an increased expansion of CD4+ T regulatory cells, such as CD4+Foxp3+ and CD4+LAP+, in the mesenteric lymph nodes. In conclusion, oral immunization with a single dose of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles loaded with cashew nut proteins leaded to a pro-Th1 and Treg immune response. Furthermore, their immunomodulatory properties could be introduced as a new approach for management of cashew nut allergy.

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