S-Nitrosoglutathione loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles for prolonged nitric oxide release and enhanced healing of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus-infected wounds

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Graphical abstractMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-infected wounds have become a significant clinical issue worldwide. Recently, nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a potent antibacterial agent against MRSA infections and a wound-healing enhancer. Nevertheless, clinical applications of NO have been largely restricted by its gaseous state and short half-life. In this study, our aim was to develop S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, an endogenous NO donor)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] microparticles (GSNO-MPs) that release NO over a prolonged period, to accelerate the healing of MRSA-infected wounds with less frequent dosing. GSNO was successfully encapsulated into PLGA microparticles by a solid-in-oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed the successful fabrication of GSNO-MPs. The latter released NO in a prolonged manner over 7 days and exerted a remarkable antibacterial activity against MRSA in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, GSNO-MPs had good antibacterial efficacy and were found to accelerate wound healing in a mouse model of MRSA-infected wounds. Therefore, NO-releasing MPs devised in this study may be a promising option for the treatment of cutaneous wounds infected by drug-resistant bacteria such as MRSA.

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