Effect of a mixture of caffeine and nicotinamide on the solubility of vitamin (B2) in aqueous solution

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The effect of caffeine (CAF) and nicotinamide (NMD) on the solubility of a vitamin B2 derivative (FMN) has been evaluated for mixtures containing either a single hydrotrope (CAF or NMD) or the two hydrotropes simultaneously. A model for analysis of ternary systems, which takes into account all possible complexes between the molecules, has been developed and tested with experimental NMR data on the three-component mixture FMN–CAF–NMD. The results indicate that special attention should be given to the concentration of a hydrotropic agent used to enhance the solubility of a particular drug. A decrease in the efficacy of solubility of the vitamin on addition of large amounts of hydrotropic agent is expected in the two-component systems due to the increased proportion of self-association of the hydrotrope. It is found that a mixture of two hydrotropic agents leads to an increase in the solubility of the vitamin in three-component compared to the two-component system. Rather than using just one hydrotropic agent, it is proposed that a strategy for optimising the solubility of aromatic drugs is to use a mixture of hydrotropic agents.

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